Edward VAN HALEN

The Death of the Electric Guitar (Slight Return)

 

Last summer I wrote this fine article on the DEATH OF THE ELECTRIC GUITAR because it was a terrifying, tumultuously timely story, affecting every guitarist in the land, right? Well, kind of, sort of, I guess. I wasn’t sure then, I’m less sure now. Would you like to know my thought process and the various bits of info I have gathered on the subject? Well, you might want to read the original article first, but if you already have (or in your head said “Go eff yourself, I don’t need to do that!”) away we go:

In the original article I tried to point out that many of these articles want to go all DOOMPORN as if the end of a few companies equals the end of rock and roll, the end of music…or the end of the world! It begs the question: Will Alex Jones be commenting on this issue at some point in the near future? Will the collapse lead to the Zombie hordes taking over or everyone living like the Road Warrior? I don’t think Guitar Center going out of business (if that happens) will lead to the end of the world, but WHAT IF? Can’t we just go back to the days when millions of dudes “rocked out” and everybody listened to the cutting-edge, magically sublime sound that was Warrant? I wish we could, but there is lots to talk about, like…

The other issue(s) that I explored rather humorously in the original post were a) how lack of “live” heroes equaled huge loss in revenues for the guitar industry (so let’s use holograms), and b) how Guitar Center and that model of business never resonated with me and finally c) maybe the finance guys and the people writing these articles are kind of full of poop. Well I’ve got new information man…certain things has come to light… In just the past few months there have been articles further detailing the plight of Gibson and Guitar Center. On May 1st Gibson filed for bankruptcy protection, which includes:

The change in control will give noteholders equity in a new company, replacing stockholders including Chief Executive Officer Henry Juszkiewicz, who owns 36 percent of the company, according to the filing. Those noteholders include Silver Point Capital, Melody Capital Partners LP, and funds affiliated with KKR Credit Advisors. Juszkiewicz and company president David Berryman will continue with the company upon emergence from Chapter 11 “to facilitate a smooth transition during this change of control transaction and to support the Company in realizing future value from its core business,” according to the announcement.

Doesn’t the language in that paragraph make you want to staple your face to your jacket lapel? Me, I’m to-ta-lly convinced turning Gibson Guitar over to companies named stuff like Silver Point Capital is just going to make everything crackerjack okay-fine. I’m not the most brilliant financial mind going, but according to Wikipedia, current CEO of Gibson Brands Henry Juszkiewicz , “acquired Gibson in 1986 for $5m USD with Gary A. Zebrowski and David H. Berryman” and now given that they are looking at about 500 million in debt, I’m going to have to say that financial mismanagement could maybe, probably, be an issue. Either that or somebody sprang for WAAY too many pizza lunches and took WAAY too many cabs to work. Also, as of 6/23/18 this was posted on his Wikipage: Juszkiewicz poor management of Gibson has caused a steady decline in the company, eventually leading to the company filing for chapter 11 bankruptcy in May of 2018. (Holy Glass Ceiling Batman!). Then… there is the Guitar Center saga. A few years ago, Bain Capital (you know that name because Mitt Romney), invested heavily in Guitar Center and they also invested heavily in Toys R Us…that iconic toy brand that just closed all 730 of it’s domestic stores.

WHOOOPS!

In this article, titled Bain Capital Sees Three Investments Stumble, we see what is typically called…I think, bullshit? Right? Right? Because having one company that you are heavily invested in close ALL of its domestic stores sounds more like a full-on face-plant, not a… “stumble”. The other company, Guitar Center, is currently “stumbling” with one billion dollars in debt. *Breathtaking*. Of course Gibson and Guitar Center’s fortunes are intertwined and both companies need people to buy, buy, buy guitars if they are going to reduce their debt loads. So, while a lower number of people buying Gibon guitars at Guitar Center is not a good sign in general, it’s an even worse sign now…because DEBT.

But, of course, the finance guys never admit they messed up. Slow sales is all your going to hear and that isn’t any surprise. Another factor is there are a lot of old people involved in the conversation and you know Old People — They are ANNOYING! Back in the day they were easy to avoid; you didn’t visit except on Thanksgiving. But now old people in the form of so called “music gurus” are weighing in on the fortunes of these companies and it’s a whole lot of LOL. Are these guys genuinely clueless, too old to keep up, or are they full of it because they are heavily invested in the industry mantra that it wasn’t financial mismanagement… it was the lack of new guitar heroes? Let’s go to some quotes and you be the judge:

I would be hard-pressed to name any new ones,” (guitar heroes) George Gruhn, owner of the Gruhn Guitars shop in Nashville, told the Daily News. “You’ve got Joe Bonamassa who is a great player. But he isn’t selling as many guitars as the other big time heroes. And Eric Clapton is arthritic. He’s having difficulty playing and is retiring from touring.”

Gruhn was quoted in my original article and he seems to be the go-to guy for all of these articles. Question: Why mention Clapton? He is 73 years old. People who are 73 shouldn’t be expected to drive youth trends and young people are not going to emulate 73 year olds in 2018. This is not rocket surgery. Personally, I don’t believe Eric Clapton “sold” a lot of guitars to players from the late-80s until now just like I don’t believe Lou Reed sold very many Shure microphones, even though here is an ad that features him trying to do just that. Speaking of Lou, did you know he had a mullet at one point? I had kind of forgotten that. That is a mighty fine mullet. Can’t we just return to the good old days of Lou Reed: The Mullet Years? Actually, no we can’t because George has more to say: Here is another quote from George that makes you wonder if he ever heard the term “cognitive-dissonance”:

Baby boomers are the best customers I’ve ever had. They’ve driven a lot of the guitar trends, but they are aging and many of them are downsizing their guitar collections,” Gruhn added. “This doesn’t mean that guitar sales are dying, but instrument sales in general are under stress.”

He continues:

Gruhn acknowledged that the demand for both acoustic and electric instruments has fallen. “I think the guitar market was built up into a bubble at a pace that was unsustainable,” he said. “It’s leveled off to something that reflects more normalcy. Factories that were designed to produce 100,000 instruments a year may now find that their demand has dropped to 75,000, and that’s a problem because now you have higher overhead.”

Not so fast says Andy Mooney, CEO of Fender Instruments:

Sales of fretted instruments are in great shape and Fender’s electric guitar and amp revenues have been steadily rising for several years,” he said…“electric sales are holding steady, acoustic sales are on the rise, and ukelele sales are exploding.”

MY GOD!! EXPLODING UKELELE SALES! Take that George Gruhn, guy who probably slaps a Trucoat® finish on the instruments you sell. Maybe it’s my mistake for taking these guys seriously. They are being ironic? sarcastic? with all of these articles saying “WE NEED A NEW GUITAR HERO”. What they really mean is “HOLY SHIT WE ARE SO FUCKED!” Because if manufacturers have been cranking guitars out at that volume for years, and you factor in all of the used electric instruments from the 50s through today currently available, PLUS all of the instruments Baby Boomers are dumping (and want to dump) on the market, at what point does every American family need to have 12 kids just to give every electric guitar a home? I don’t think Eric Clapton can fix this! Through the years I think I had 22 string instruments and I only ever bought 4 brand new ones and I started buying in the 70s. Since I have known a lot of guitar players over the years I can say with confidence that my experience isn’t unique. So, in addition to financial mismanagement, a completely over-saturated market (which I alluded to in the original piece) is also a component to this tragedy.

Another interesting aspect to this Los Angeles Times article that wants to address “changing tastes” is the very predictable notion that the solution to too big to fail is…more too big to fail. There’s a three-step progression at work here that’s pretty insidious, unless you find it hilarious; the two emotions are not necessary mutually exclusive. The first step are the sellers with the Muh Generation bullshit. The second step is that this generation can’t do it on it’s own and this is articulated by one Louie Concotilli, owner of Mugzey Music:

The bigger problem, according to Concotelli, is that most aspiring players don’t want to put in the time to become proficient on the instrument…“If they do want to learn they’ll just go to YouTube, but they’re not getting the proper instruction,” he said. “…kids these days, it’s all about instant gratification. No one wants to take six months or a year to learn. They don’t want to do the work.”

Who else is sick of these friggin’ kids at this point? Bunch of lame-bodies for sure. Not only does this generation (unlike prior generations) need guidance and help learning, but they also need A BIG FRIGGIN KICK UP THE ASS SO THEY DO THE WORK! So here we reach the third step. A solution in the form of a chain, courtesy of Corporate America:

One of the brighter spots in the industry these days can be found in School of Rock, a Canton, Massachusetts-based chain of 207 music schools which span 10 countries worldwide. Elliot Baldini, the company’s senior vice president of marketing, said the schools are designed to draw students in by giving them more of what they actually want to learn.

Right…because a chain of 207 music schools is how all of those Baby Boomers, including Eric Clapton, learned how to play. Because no one learns on YouTube, where a search for “Guitar Lessons” pulls up 14 million results and where some instructors (including some I list on this blog) have upwards of a half-million subscribers. Because on YouTube you can’t ever find that song that you actually want to learn, even though it’s designed to be user-driven. Because you need a chain of two-hundred+ schools to teach people music and that’s a bright spot in the industry. I believe that the guy mostly responsible for guitar sales in the Golden Age (the 80s) was Van Halen, not Eric Clapton, although curiously Edward is never mentioned as a driver of guitar sales in these articles. When he and his band came on the scene in 1978 he was playing a piece of crap guitar with one pickup and one knob that he built himself. The industry responded by building and selling a whole bunch of guitars patterned on his design. “The industry,” even when it tries to sell the idea that it “leads,” usually “responds”. Maybe they could respond by doing something else Edward Van Halen did. He donated a whole bunch of his guitars to low-income schools so young people who might not have the finances or exposure in their home have a chance at learning how to play the instrument. If every school in America had some guitars in it that would certainly get rid of a whole lot of inventory, wouldn’t it? That would also get rid of the problem of “nobody” playing guitar. Don’t I have great ideas? They should give me a cabinet position in Washington!

All kidding aside — and that was a lot of kidding you just read through (whew!) — I’m not disputing the charge that fewer guitars have been sold in the past ten years (to 2008), but I don’t think you can directly relate that to whether less people play guitar, especially world-wide. It would be really interesting to see industry sales stats going back to the 1950s when rock n’ roll exploded! I’m not the only person who is cognizant of the fact that instrument sales probably were not a straight-line increase from the time the Les Paul came on the market until 2008 when sales (at least as far as the data we can see) started slipping. If you’ve been around long enough you certainly remember companies and guitar models from back in the day that have no sales stats today because they haven’t existed for a long time. Who buys a Mouse Amp these days? Do you remember the Aria Pro II? That company still exists! See, how bad can things really be then? I believe there have been these peaks and valleys throughout the past half-century, and would be very surprised if there were not some very slow sales in the late 70s and late 90s too. It’s the nature of the world we live in that there are cycles and changes. There have always been people who have tried to make people aware of these facts and what the future might portend and a few of these people were quite famous, including The Geico Caveman…no seriously…David Bowie.

Around the 1:45 mark he talks about brands and subgroups and genres and how the music business has fractured from where it was in the 60s and 70s when definite BIG artists and one or two different ways of doing things were the rule. In the 70s if someone wanted to play music there were limited options compared to now. Of course the business behind those limited options was HUGE because everyone had just those choices, but a whole lot of people wanted to be in the business. Obviously a whole lot of people still want to be in the music and entertainment business, but today there are many more ways to go about that. Saying Eric Clapton over and over again is not going to solve any of the current problems and may in fact be part of the reason these problems arose in the first place. Remember…there were plenty of people who worked at record companies in the 1990s saying “Ho ho ho FILE SHARING is nothing to worry about!” But those people don’t exist anymore. Gene Simmons killed them. So you see…adapting is very important.

The fact is, there are guitar heroes out there who aren’t household names like Clapton or Van Halen, yet they influence people through the magic of their talent, presence and music. Gypsy Jazz players I have written about on this blog, Stochelo Rosenberg and Stephane Wrembel, to name just two, are the reason I bought a new guitar a few years ago. Just have a look at all of these other people and their guitars that they had to buy from somebody because it’s pretty hard to make a Selmer-Maccaferri type guitar on your own. (Although some can people do it). Gypsy Jazz wasn’t even really a genre of music until the 1990s and now people spend some serious coin on guitars and all manner of peripheral equipment so they can go out and get their swing on. I mention this genre because I know something about it. There are many other genres and sub-genres out there (just like Bowie said there would be) that I know nothing about because I’m old or haven’t been exposed to them. The Gypsy Jazzers are not going to get Guitar Center out of trouble, and neither will the players in these other smaller genres, but they certainly make it possible for other individuals and companies to have a business and make a living. That’s the way it is, that’s the way it has always been! God Bless America! It’s not all about the numbers! It should be about the quality and creative solutions, because they are out there. If I can think of a few, you know there are plenty more. If not, there is always 2112!

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The Impressionists — Part 1

Claude Debussy, Rockstar

Back in the early 1980s I remember reading a Van Halen interview and at one point he related how much he liked Claude Debussy. (If you follow the link you can read the whole interview [from 1980] for yourself. That wasn’t my first exposure to the name Claude Debussy as I had taken some music courses in college, but it was interesting that EVH was a fan and it’s probably the first time the name “Debussy” was mentioned in a rock guitar interview. It’s likely that Edward’s early piano studies were responsible for the exposure to classical music and it didn’t hurt that his father was a lifelong jazz musician who, because of his European (Dutch) background, probably knew all about Debussy and other Impressionist composers. Debussy casts a long shadow over 20th Century music and while it is beyond the scope of this blog and this blogger to explore all of the aspects of Debussy’s music and Impressionism, especially in the classical music realm, I am capable of drawing attention to some of the salient musical ideas he expressed and some of the musicians he and his contemporaries inspired.

You can get a full Debussy bio from several sources if you are interested: here, here, here, and here. What is striking about Debussy is that unlike many composers/French composers from this period, he is a man who came from nowhere; he was not from musical family and the source of his talent and influences has always been somewhat mysterious. He stated many times that his overriding guide for composing and playing was always, first and foremost, his own pleasure and enjoyment; musical rules, critics and audiences alike were of no consequence. Debussy was part of a group of somewhat controversial composers who came of age and success in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Other notables in this group known as Impressionists included: Maurice Ravel, Erik Satie and Isaac Albéniz. Departing from established norms in the classical musical field was, of course, not without problems. European audiences of the day were somewhat less than enamored with any departure from classical and romantic musical traditions. Debussy has often been called a musical revolutionary because of his desire to overthrow the established “rules” of composition (and perhaps it is this desire that Van Halen channeled the most?). Debussy (and Ravel to a certain extent) did not like the fact that [their] brand of composition brought comparison to the art movement of Impressionism: the harmonic nature of their compositions and the dreamy qualities of their music recalled the Impressionists’ art: “… scenes suffused with reflected light in which the emphasis is on the overall impression rather than outline or clarity of detail.” They considered themselves “modernists” and believed they were composing for a new generation and a new century. This is certainly voiced by Debussy in one of his most famous quotes: “The century of airplanes has a right to its own music.”

The video above features Leonard Bernstein’s analysis of one of Debussy’s most famous compositions, Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune (Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun), his first real musical “success”. Bernstein, one of history’s greatest musical minds, explores the background on the modern period I alluded to in the previous paragraph and then, during an analysis of the composition, explains Impressionism and how Debussy’s ideas helped shape music for the 20th century. He discusses the vagueness and dreamy qualities implied by uncertain tonal centers and Debussy’s use of the Augmented Fourth or the Tritone Interval (notes that span from G nat to C# and chords that move from Emaj to Bb7). As Bernstein explains, though it is unclear at the outset, Debussy’s Faun Poem is in the key of Emaj and throughout refers to, reverts to, or flirts with, either Emaj or one of it’s relative tonics and these tonal references serve as “landmarks” that illustrate a point of repose or a change in movement. As the 1st part of the video segues into part 2 (it should do so automatically) it is clear that Debussy also makes use of conventional I-V cadences (Emaj to Bmaj) which restore a sense of tradition and diatonic order, but no sooner than he does, he introduces a Whole Tone Scale! (more ambiguity). Bernstein gives Debussy credit for inventing the Whole Tone Scale, explains the relation of this scale to the Tritone, and notes that this is the first Atonal Scale to appear in music history (which should help illustrate why this was all very controversial to 19th century ears). Not included in the videos, but important nonetheless is that Debussy also employed: Bi-tonality, Pentatonic Scales, Random Modulations, free chromaticism, tonal ambiguity, and new ideas for instrument combinations. He also employed what was termed, at the time, A Strong Orientalism, which translates to “he was open to using sounds and ideas from Eastern music in his compositions.” [A familiar tale is how enchanted he was with the performance of a troupe of Gamelan performers from Java at the 1889 and 1900 Paris Expositions.]

All of this musical theory stuff is tame by today’s standards and is certainly familiar to anyone who is well-versed in various aspects of theory across different genres of music (classical, jazz, fusion, etc), but many of these ideas were really groundbreaking for Debussy’s day. People walked out of the performances because these composers were creating music that sounded atonal and dissonant to 19th century ears steeped in classical and romantic traditions. Modern composers and players of all stripes have made use of these techniques since the beginning of the last century (pretty much every blues/rock guitar player starts with the Pentatonic scale). While Debussy’s influence obviously transcends many musical boundaries, his music, played as is, holds up to this day. Piano was his instrument of choice for composing and/or performing, and further below we will make use of piano videos to explore a famous Debussy song. However, it is very easy to adapt his pieces for the guitar. Long ago I reviewed this wonderful CD of Classical Guitar Masters Julian Bream and John Williams collaborations from the 1970s titled Together and Together Again, that has been repackaged (as a 2-disc set) at various times since. The disc(s) contains three Debussy compositions: Reverie, Golliwog’s Cakewalk and the well-known Claire De Lune. It also contains a few fellow Impressionist Isaac Albéniz compositions as well as cuts from contemporaries Enrique Granados and Gabriel Fauré. Obviously, Bream and Williams were big fans of this period and saw a lot of value in adapting piano pieces to 2 guitars. (Some of these pieces even sound as if they were composed specifically for the guitar). Below they play Reverie; haunting and ethereal — one of Debussy’s early compositions and one that I think illustrates his dreamy musical qualities very well.

Guitar Master Tommy Emmanuel is also is a Debussy fan and as he relates, “he’ll do anything to entertain people!” So here is his version of Debussy’s Golliwog’s Cakewalk. If you think this doesn’t sound like classical musical, well imagine hearing it in 1911! This piece was part of the Children’s Corner Piano Suite which was written in honor of Debussy’s daughter, Claude-Emma (“Chou-Chou”). The rhythm and harmonic content are Debussy’s most obvious nod to American Ragtime. Debussy also injects “the love-death leitmotif of Richard Wagner’s opera Tristan und Isolde into the B part of the piece. Tommy does a very faithful rendition of this difficult piece of music (in Eb).

As the 20th century progressed the ideas and sounds of Debussy and his Modernity or Impressionism began to appear in popular and jazz music. Anyone who has any familiarity with jazz recognizes concepts like the tritone, chromatics, atonal scales and cadences that don’t involve familiar rules of harmony. Not only was this seen in compositions of the day, but it also appeared in the improvisations of notable jazz players, especially those with a classical background or an ear toward these composers. Someone I have written about extensively, Django Reinhardt, adopted many of Debussy’s (Impressionist) ideas for his own compositions and improvising. While Django was certainly a fan of many types of music and artists ranging from Bach to Louis Armstrong, he was quoted early in his career: “Jazz attracted me because in it I found a formal perfection and instrumental precision that I admire in classical music, but which popular music doesn’t have.” The influence of the Impressionism would emerge as early as 1937 when he recorded Bolero, which was heavily inspired by Maurice Ravel’s composition of the same name (this will be explored in Part 2).

In 1940, after the outbreak of World War II that left violinist Stephane Grappelli stranded in England, Django enlisted Hubert Rostaing on clarinet and composed one of his most famous numbers, Nuages; a guitar nod to Impressionism and a gift to the French people who were suffering under Nazi occupation. Stuffed full of Debussy-style Chromaticism, Whole Tone and Diminished scale runs, the song is classic Reinhardt. Some have speculated that because the Nazi regime was hostile to anything that smacked of American music or certainly jazz, Django shifted his composition style to one that was much more classically-influenced and this may be true. Or the addition of reeds to his ensemble inspired him because in addition to Nuages, he would compose or arrange Impressionist-influenced music with this new cast of musicians throughout the 1940s: Manoir de mes Rêves, Melodie au Crepescule, Danse Norvegienne, Cavalerie, Oiseaux Des Iles, Lentement Mademoiselle, Fleur D’Ennui and Crepuscule . All of these pieces have the sound and vibe of Debussy and the other classical composers that Django admired and some, like Lentement Mademoiselle and Crepuscle have direct clarinet intro nods that recall Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune (above). He also would record a Debussy piece, Reverie, during the Rome Sessions of 1949-59. While not as literal as Bream and Williams’ take above, Django obviously takes a Debussy inspiration and makes it his own. He also would record a song by the name of Clair de Lune in 1947, although this piece has nothing in common with the Debussy’s composition, except it’s name. The song was actually composed by Joseph Kosma, (writer of many a splendid thing, including Les feuilles mortes, more commonly known as the standard, Autumn Leaves, for an aborted movie that would’ve been named La Fleur de l’âge, had it been completed. Supposedly this is just one of the 4 songs Django and Company would’ve performed and it’s a shame it was not to be as Django plays some totally killin’ guitar on it. What is strange is that Django DID appear in a 1932 movie titled…you guess it Clair de Lune some two years before the original Hot Club of France was formed. This movie was shot (completely outdoors) in Cannes and features some very melodious guitar.

Clair de Lune was certainly one of Debussy’s most famous pieces, part of the Suite bergamasque and titled from an 1869 poem of the same name. (Interestingly enough, Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune was inspired by Stéphane Mallarmé’s poem, L’après-midi d’un faune). It is played very emotionally and dynamically above by the very talented Kathia Buniatishvili. It is also discussed and analyzed here and here if you are interested to learn more about this very famous composition. I’ve listened to many different versions of this piece, including a the one by Bream and Williams, which is a favorite and I have to say this piece is what I imagine 1895 sounded like…at least in certain circles.

This video analysis above of Debussy’s La fille aux cheveux de lin, explained through the lens of jazz harmony is a must-watch, especially if you have any music geek in you at all. It is also an interesting primer for jazz/classical harmony. Anyone who has attempted to play Jazz or Gypsy Jazz will find many of these musical ideas familiar because they have become important staples of the style(s). In this lesson on YouTube (unfortunately it does not have subs) Romane (who I wrote about here) demonstrates the Whole Tone scale beginning at about the 9 minute mark. Diminshed/Octatonic scales and arpeggios are also often used in improvisations. Diminished chords are also used very frequently in the harmony of Gyspy Jazz tunes and songs from the Swing Era and these “movement” / “transition” chords and the ability to play over them is very important aspect of what gives the style it’s verve and exotic sound. See also discussions about this topic here and here and know that Debussy’s influence was definitely a factor, even if the chords or how they are thought of is not exactly the same as is true in classical music.

Stephane Wrembel is may be the most Impressionist-influenced composer/player happening today. He certainly has embraced all of what can be gleaned from Debussy, Django, Jimmy Page, and others to compose and perform music that sounds unlike any other. I’ve written about him before, here and here and his abilities as a composer and channel of these musical ideas first expressed back in the 19th century only continue to grow. In the above video he demonstrates his Impressionist ideas and how this shapes his music. Anyone who is a fan of Gypsy Jazz will find these concepts very familiar, but Stephane is definitely one of the riskiest composers in the genre. His music synthesizes all of the freedom found not only in Impressionism, but also the best music of the 20th century and the ideas that Debussy espoused about how emotion and freedom were more important to music that convention.

As I have done in the past, like this exploration on the song Waiting for the Sunrise, I find that the history, progression and connections of musical styles, ideas, players and composers fascinating. Debussy’s music stands on it’s own and it brings me great pleasure to listen to it and all that it inspired. What he created became so much more than just music; it became a way of making music, that inspired later musicians to create their own unique statements. The idea of freedom he aspired to and tried to bring to his compositions is a quality that every writer, player and improviser seeks to achieve because that is the highest plateau one can reach as an artist. I’m not sure what influence Debussy had on Edward Van Halen. The very different rock of Fair Warning? (that I reviewed here). The keyboard stuff that started appearing at that time? Sunday Afternoon in the Park? 1984? Girl Gone Bad? Someone should ask him, it would be interesting to find out!

In Part 2 I’ll look at some of the other Impressionist composers and how their ideas and their music helped shape the sounds of the 20th century and beyond!

Happy 65 Freddie Mercury!

Freddie Mercury would’ve been 65 yesterday. Dude was AMAZING and so was his band, Queen. They were one of a kind and one of the heaviest of 70s rock. Many of their songs were staples of FM radio and definitely part of my high school/college years. And hey…Brian May is a heckuva guitarist isn’t he? I remember being like 12 and seeing the video (the first music video ever) of Bohemian Rhapsody on The Midnight Special in the 1970s. That was friggin’ unbelievable at the time…supposedly when he heard it Brian Wilson was so scared he cried for 10 minutes. {If you watch the video again starting at about 5:15 Brian May is doing obvious tapped-hammer-ons. Interesting because he never made a big deal out of it. Brian and Eddie Van Halen did play together in the early 80s in the Starfleet Project} Freddie was an extraordinary writer and showman and had one of the best if not THE BEST voices ever heard in rock. Queen at Live Aid is easily some of the greatest 18 minutes in popular music history and even back then it was obvious they stole the show. Here is the first section…view the whole thing by following the You Tube chapters. Freddie leading the crowd in the call and response at the beginning of chapter 2 embodies what Tony Soprano called “BALLS”. Freddie is as comfortable and confident in front of literally (with the TV audience) millions of people as he would be in his living room.

I’ve always really liked early, prog-rock Queen and long-hair, black fingernails Freddie. This song is a real great showcase for the rest of the band too. I’m pretty sure Keep Yourself Alive was written by Brian and it’s a total show-off song, but also way cool!

Queen never sounded like anyone else and it was obvious from the beginning that all of the members had extraordinary talents. Freddie’s operatic rock god vocals, Brian with his homemade guitar, wall of Vox amps, and mega-chops, the brilliant drumming and high harmony vocals provided by Roger Taylor and quiet John Deacon holding it all together on bass, these guys could ROCK! Stone Cold Crazy was so heavy that Metallica covered it.

I also like some of Queen’s offbeat material. Many people in the USA, including some critics, didn’t get the humor that was involved in the writing and performances. I’m not sure why it was so hard to understand — Queen named two of their albums after Marx Brothers movies didn’t they? That probably should have been a clue that they didn’t take themselves very seriously. Jazz was a really funny record and for a time, back in the late 80s at the VITAL VAN loft, that record got frequent airplay, especially Bicycle Race with lots of air guitars and shouting along. The first hint of this smart, clever writing and tight musical arrangements appeared on Queen’s first real hit, Killer Queen. I still love this song too, especially all of the phasing and the triangle hit before the 2nd verse. Of course the guitar parts are great and was there ever as glamorous a rock singer as Freddie Mercury? I think not.

While all of this stuff is from a long time ago, that’s okay. Because if you were there while it was happening you know how super-duper cool and important it was and if you weren’t, that’s okay, because you probably wish you could’ve been. I never got into Queen’s dance music very much — Another Bites the Dust was so EVERYWHERE in 1980 that it was almost a pop-novelty song. Thanks to Weird Al Yankovic it did become a novelty hit when he turned it into Another One Rides the Bus. (I saw this performance on Tom Snyder’s show when it was first broadcast) It was funny at the time because a lot of people, especially in the USA, thought this was something Queen was doing as a one-off. They were a different kind of band in the 80s but that was alright because they were still able to bring the rock and a really great show. Some of their ballads were similar to Elton John…he wasn’t the most rockin’ guy, but he sure had a lot of great songs on the charts in the 1970s-1980s and, like Queen, was really stellar in concert. One of the benefits to being old now is that I (we) were able to live through some very special times. There will never be another Freddie Mercury and I can say that with 100% confidence. Some people are just one of a kind and to have seen them, rocked to them and enjoyed their artistic endeavors is part of what has made my life a blast.
Happy Belated Birthday Freddie!

This is Your Brain… on GUITAR

Many people think that great guitar improvisers are born with magical powers that allow them to zip all through a song at a fast tempo without making a mistake. To a degree, this is true; some people are more adept at “hearing” music and have a natural facility for executing a performance that leaves the audience enthralled and screaming for more. But science is casting a new light on why some people have these abilities and how you too may be able to harness whatever natural qualities exist within you to improve your playing. As with anything and everything in life, HOW ONE LEARNS is extremely important and directly connected to HOW ONE DOES. While this might seem obvious, how it works internally is pretty amazing. One of the fellas I’ve been playing with for the past few years is a psychiatrist and he laid this paper on me, What Musicians Can Learn about Practicing from Current Brain Research, written by Molly Gebrian. I don’t have much of a background in the science of the mind or biology/psychology in general, but I’d like to give an overview of what I have gotten out of reading this paper. What’s interesting is that I think you will find by the end of the post that even guitar powerhouses of the past understood the concepts presented even if they had no idea WHY or HOW. If you are a guitarist, knowing this WHY or HOW might make the difference when you approach practicing, rehearsing, writing or performance in the future.

You can download the paper at the above link or just follow along here as I pull out the parts that really made an impression on me. Since I have been using what I’ve learned from this paper in the study of Gypsy Jazz, I will be drawing correlations between the two, but you can apply these methods to any style of music. The concepts presented deal mostly with string and piano players, and the author is an accomplished musician (viola). All of these quotes come directly from the paper.

“Two very important areas for learning and executing motor skills are the primary motor cortex and the cerebellum. The primary motor cortex is activated whenever you move voluntarily, whether it’s a skilled action like playing the Tchaikovsky violin concerto, or a not-so-skilled action like dragging yourself out of bed in the morning. The cerebellum is important for coordinating actions and it also serves as an error detector. As you learn a new piece of music or a new playing technique (such as circular breathing), the synapses in these two brain areas change. In the motor cortex, the synapses that relay the information on how to play something correctly get strengthened, while those that send erroneous or irrelevant messages get weakened….The brain accomplishes this through changing the number of receptors on the receiving neuron and/or the amount of neurotransmitter released by the sending neuron. The more receptors or neurotransmitter, the more likely the next neuron will get the message and pass it on, or vice versa.”

Every Gypsy Jazz instructor or instruction manual stresses the importance of learning new material slowly. It is important to fully digest what you are trying to do because you will never be able to play correctly if your knowledge is rushed or superficial. If you LEARN WRONG you will PLAY WRONG. Whether you are learning technical stuff or not it pays to try to be as focused as possible on the mechanics of what you are doing. I am the biggest violator of this rule so don’t think I’m lecturing. I have to force myself to chill out all the time! Given my background, which was for a long time, ROCK, punk-rock, and metal-esque riffing stuff, it is understandable why I might not be a very deliberate and patient player. Some people are just naturally very methodical too, but I think it’s possible for anyone to make these adjustments and s l o w d o w n because it will do your learning phase a whole bunch of good!

“So what all of this means is that every time you practice or learn something new, you’re actually changing your brain…In brain terms, you have to strengthen one group of synapses while also weakening another, rather than just strengthening a message.”

Initially, the brain changes are so small they happen on a microscopic level and if you aren’t doing something right it is easy to correct any mistakes. As time and practice continues however, the synapses involved are made stronger, new synapses are created and groups of neurons, which are called neuronal ensembles become synchronized and streamlined in their behavior. While there is “noise” and mistakes at first, with time and practice the neuronal ensembles become more adept at working together and the result is similar to all of the instruments of the orchestra performing in harmony.

“…some neuroscientists think musicians are an ideal population to find out what happens when you practice a motor task repeatedly for years and years. One of the most obvious changes is that, especially in string players and keyboard players, the portion of the motor cortex devoted to the fingers is much bigger. At the same time, the neurons in this cortical network are much more efficient. These two things happen because, presumably, over time, lots and lots of neurons get connected by synapses that wouldn’t normally be connected, and the neuronal ensembles that result from these new connections get much better at what they do because they get to practice everyday. A musician’s brain is so efficient at things like scales and other simple patterns that are automatic to us that entire brain areas don’t get engaged in a musician’s brain that are very active in a non-musician or amateur’s brain.”

String and keyboard players have a much larger portion of the cortex area of their brains devoted to the fingers than people who don’t play these instruments. A good player is capable of performing finely coordinated movements without activating other areas of the brain like the pre-motor cortex and the supplementary motor area. This is impossible for a non-musician who tries to execute similar movements. Can you begin to see why a great guitarist is capable of playing some really impressive stuff while making it look so easy? This person is using much less of their BRAIN…to do so much more! When ZE ZOMBIES attack, accomplished guitar players will be the first people they go after! Run! Hide!

“The other amazing thing that happens in musicians’ brains as new synapses form is that our motor cortex gets connected to our auditory cortex. Think about how strange that is. For most people, what they hear doesn’t cause them to have automatic associations with movement, and moving certainly doesn’t cause them to hear things in their heads.”

WHOA! WAY COOL! When a musician listens to a piece of music they know and play well, not only does their auditory cortex light up on a brain scan, but the area of the motor cortex devoted to finger movement does too, and not only does this area light up as a whole, but the individual fingers light up in the order and timing necessary to play the piece. Consequently, if someone asks you, pro guitar-person, to air-guitar a song you know well, your auditory cortex is going to light up as you execute the movements necessary to play the song, even if you don’t have a guitar in your hand or make any actual sounds. That’s pretty amazing don’t you think? I think this is why many guitar teachers advise players striving for better improvisation to “SING” their parts. Because the motor cortex is connected to the auditory cortex you must KNOW what you want to HEAR so the auditory cortex can send an endless amount of messages to your fingers on what to play.

“Matthew Walker and his colleagues here in Boston have done a number of experiments on motor learning during sleep (Walker, et al, 2002, 2003, 2005). Their basic experimental paradigm involves three groups of people. The first group gets taught a finger tapping task (4-1-2-3-4 where 4 is the pinky finger and 1 is the index finger) at 10am, which they then practice and are tested on multiple times throughout the day. The second group gets taught and practices the same task at 10am, but they don’t get tested on it again until 10pm. Then, they are sent home to sleep and tested the next morning at 10am. The final group is trained on the task at 10pm and has their first retest at 10am the next morning. What they found is astonishing. The first group gets gradually better throughout the day at a rate that you can predict. The second group shows the same linear increase during the day, but when you test them the next morning, there is a huge jump in their performance (measured by faster sequence execution without loss of accuracy). The same goes for the group that was trained at 10pm and then retested for the first time the next day – they got much better overnight, even though all they were doing was sleeping! (Everyone was instructed not to practice when they went home.) Even more surprising, there is absolutely no relationship between how much better a person got during daytime practicing and how much better they got after sleeping.”

They researchers believe that our sleep time is when the brain is actually PROCESSING the new information learned or practiced during the day. There are theories that some learning is dependent on practice (which we all need to do) and other learning is dependent on sleep and they function independent of each other. You can’t learn just by sleeping (if only huh?), but if you are, say learning a new fast and tricky passage, it makes more sense to get it so you can play it CORRECTLY at a nice slow tempo, and then leave it until the next day and progress that way. Using this “steps” kind of process you should be able to pick up speed faster over time than if you try to get it all immediately.

“Sleep is divided into two broad types: REM sleep and non-REM sleep (or NREM sleep)… During what is called Stage 2 NREM sleep, however, electrical brain events occur that are called sleep spindles. During a sleep spindle, there is a huge burst of electrical activity in a population of neurons that causes massive amounts of calcium to enter those cells. Calcium is what causes all the changes discussed earlier, from strengthening and weakening synapses, to making new synapses, to synchronizing the firing of neuronal ensembles. Sleep spindles reach peak intensity late in the night and have been shown to increase following motor learning during the day. The study by Matthew Walker and his colleagues at Harvard Medical School also found that the percentage of improvement after sleeping strongly correlated with the amount of time the person spent in Stage 2 NREM sleep in the final quarter of the night, precisely when sleep spindle activity is at its peak.”

I’ve made it a habit to pick up the guitar and run through some new things right before bed and even after I put the guitar down, I briefly go over what I’ve just played in my mind as I try to drift off. Obviously I can’t do this every night and neither can most people, but if you are unhappy with your abilities or stuck at a plateau that you can’t move beyond, try to incorporate some of these ideas and see if they make a difference. I think it is important to focus on ONE THING; a lick, a passage, or technique, instead of trying to cram a lot of ideas at once, especially if you want to make a leap forward. Sometimes a very simple thing, like starting descending runs with an upstroke instead of a downstroke, or learning a new arpeggio or scale application can lead to big changes.

Finally — mental practice. Have you ever heard the legends of how some of those really boss jazz players like Charlie Parker, Miles Davis or John Coltrane were able to practice mentally, without a horn, moving their fingers correctly and hearing the notes and sound in their head? If not, it is a legend that has actually been around for a while and the thing is: It’s true. There is no legend involved. Science!

“Another surprising finding is how much you can accomplish by practicing mentally. Alvaro Pascual-Leone and his colleagues at the NIH (National Institutes of Health) did a study in which they looked at the effects of mental practicing, resulting in very exciting conclusions. In their study, they had two groups of people (all non-musicians) learn to play a five-note scale (do-re-mi-fa-sol-fa-mi-re-do or C-D-E-F-G-F-E-D-C) on the piano in 16th notes at quarter note equals 60 (or four notes per second). Both groups practiced for two hours a day for five days (a total of 10 hours), but one group was only allowed to practice mentally. They were not even allowed to move their fingers. Everyday at the end of the practice session, everyone was tested to see how well they could play the scale. This is the only time the mental practice group got to actually play the keyboard. As easy as this would be for any trained musician, regardless of instrument, it is quite difficult for people with no musical training. At the end of the first day of practicing, both groups had a very hard time playing steadily and they would often play their fingers in the wrong order. After having practiced for five days, however, the group that got to practice on the piano everyday could play the scale perfectly. After five days, the group that only practiced mentally could play it at the same level as the physical practice group achieved after three days. The mental practice group was then allowed to practice at the keyboard for two hours, after which they could play it perfectly!”

Not only did the group that physically practiced piano for two hours play this scale perfectly but both groups had their cortex measured daily, and as you can probably guess, all participants had growth in the size of the motor cortex region devoted to the fingers, even if they were in the group that was only THINKING about playing. Pretty far out isn’t it? This is something that might be useful if you find yourself in a situation where you don’t have an instrument, or have perhaps sustained some kind of injury that prevents you from playing for period of time. In addition, the combination of mental practice and physical practice can make you a really boss player. Ever read the story of Edward Van Halen sitting in the closet humming ideas into a walkman because he didn’t want to wake his wife? Supposedly the awesome Girl Gone Bad from the 1984 album started that way. Or how about Jimi Hendrix once musing… that sometimes daydreaming could produce the most intense music, but if he reached for his guitar and tried to duplicate it right away, it just ruined the moment? I wonder if some of these “dreams” or “ideas” don’t show up as music at some point without players even trying to recreate the ideas verbatim. Considering all of this new scientific info, could it be that our brain isn’t making as much of a distinction between our thinking and our playing as we do? Have you ever played or written something and wondered, where did THAT come from?

While most of this might not seem like a HUGE revelation, it should make you appreciate just how great a machine the brain is and how you as the controller of your brain, can adjust it in order to be a better musician. I was never a very technical player before my introduction to Gypsy Jazz, even though I was capable of playing some fairly intricate rock stuff. But I quickly learned that if you are going to have a really good technique, you must have a lot of patience and focus and bring as many of your mental resources to the task as possible. If you’ve read this and are interested in improving your technique or maybe getting out of a rut, see if you can try to bring your brain into the mix instead of just letting your fingers go to their familiar moves and positions. Learn something new and really learn it so well you can wake up in the morning and play it. Own your brain and you will own your music. If you leave everything up to the fingers, or old habits, you will always be using a small fraction of the resources at your disposal. Also, keep in mind that this does not mean FEEL and EMOTIONS go out the window. Django Reinhardt, Edward Van Halen, Jimi Hendrix, Joe Pass, Jennifer Batten and many others have had complete technical command of their instruments and were/are very feel-oriented players. While there have long been discussions in guitar circles of one versus the other, in actuality, the better your technique, the better the possibility you will be able to translate your emotions into sophisticated playing. How can you use YOUR brain to move forward with your approach to GUITARING?

** All quotes from:
What Musicians Can Learn about Practicing from Current Brain Research. Molly Gebrian.

Voodoo Child 2.0 — Randy Hansen

Randy is HEAVY!!! I LOVE his take on Jimi Hendrix, and he is also a great player in many styles. Seeing Randy live or watching his videos is not only a heck of a lot of fun, but it’s very instructive for anyone who has ever wondered how Jimi did what he did, or how to get that great psychedelic, piano-on-the-neck, astro-blues sound. I know a lot of people cover The Man, but Randy Hansen has been doing this for a long time and really pulls it off better than anyone. He’s got all the guitar parts down, throws in his own improvisation, uses the effects accordingly, does all of the guitar tricks and really puts his heart into it. He ain’t afraid of getting loud and dirty, but he can also be really mellow and full o’ soul, like on the beautiful Hendrix ballad, One Rainy Wish. Some players, like Eric Johnson and Stevie Ray Vaughan are just too respectful of Jimi, or too technical (EJ). Randy really lets it ALL hang out and if you are playing space blues through a couple 100 watt Marshall stacks, that is what you have to do. Don’t get me wrong, I LOVE Stevie Ray and Eric Johnson’s playing and Stevie’s take on 3rd Stone from the Sun and Eric’s Love or Confusion are rilly cool. But Randy’s guitar and especially, his vocals are better than pretty much anyone who tries to do Hendrix, and I think he does the whole thing really super-duper right. I like how the stage and backdrop of this show looks a little bit like Rainbow Bridge.

Did I mention that Randy has been doing this a looooooong time? He got a huge shout-out from Edward Van Halen in Guitar Player when EVH was just hitting the big-time. He was also a good friend of SRV and has worked with many a major artist in his 30+ years in the business. I didn’t know this until recently, but he composed almost 20 minutes of music heard in the movie Apocalypse Now, (probably where it is supposed to be reminiscent of Jimi). Definitely a great player and a guy to check out if you ever have the chance.

Django Reinhardt—Improvisation #1

“Django Meets Van Halen”

What can be said about this “song”, an off-the-cuff recording, done in one take in 1937? Nothing…you just have to listen to it, or watch Jimmy Rosenberg play it. While Jimmy is good, and by that I mean, REALLY GREAT, there is something even more amazing about Django’s recording of the song. It’s done with such wild abandon and confidence that the performance seems to fall out of him. It is the classic Django performance one could rightfully point to as example of how he was a one-of-a-kind guitar player and completely ahead of his time. Even today, I think it was performances like this one that cemented Django’s reputation as a player who could do things that defied comprehension.

Django’s recording still holds up — (HERE)— the richness of the chords and harmony playing and the complete virtuosity with all of the rapid-fire single string lines, plus the tone, the SOUND of that Selmer guitar which jumps out at you even though the recording is now almost 75 years old. What I love about this performance is that it shows that Django anticipated and laid the groundwork for another of my favorite players, Edward Van Halen, forty years before the latter came along. From a purely technical aspect, Improvisation #1 is Django’s Eruption; blazing diminished arpeggios, the unbelievably cool and lightning-fast descending chromatic runs, the hammer-tapped harmonics between the two fast sections, the statacco picking that almost sounds like the beginning of the second part of Eruption after the key/ tonal center change from Dm to Bm, and the complete command of drama in the performance, which results from the confidence and ability to time and pace everything correctly without rushing, stumbling, or overplaying. What makes this even more amazing was Django recorded this at the end of a recording session and had someone signalling to him when his 3 minutes was running out. Everyone else at the session was amazed at the result and would not let Django reconsider a do-over.

Much of the same can be said for Edward Van Halen’s Eruption which is dazzling in it’s pyrotechnic beauty and enhanced by the power of electricity, volume, distortion and effects (minimal compared to some players). Certainly both he and Django have similarities in their approach to playing guitar and were going for a similar type of (improvised) performance. Everyone knows that Eruption completely turned the guitar-playing world on its head in 1978. It was EVH who brought the sophistication of classical and jazz music and a completely new level of virtuosity to arena rock audiences. While there had been many talented rock players taking many extended solos and solo pieces — Page, Blackmore, Howe, Beck, May, Hendrix — and jazz, fusion and progressive rock certainly had many technical powerhouses — McLaughlin, DiMeola, Fripp, Metheny, Coryell — the technique, sound, and go-for-it! attitude contained in Eruption and on every Van Halen record through 1984 was so overwhelming that he was repeatedly voted the #1 Player and an entire industry was created around learning to play his style. Whether one likes or appreciates his talents is immaterial because what is most important is the effect and influence he had on so many other players and how that has shaped what guitar playing is all about.

In the wake of Eruption new guitar magazines appeared and so did other materials like the“Hot Licks” cassette tapes, and soon after, videos with in-depth explorations of the technique and the sound needed to pull of the Van Halen performance. While the concept of “tablature” as a form of notating music has been around since the 15th century, personally, I can’t remember seeing music written out that way, even in Guitar Player Magazine before EVH turned the guitar world upside down (At the time was the youngest player ever to appear on the cover of that magazine). I have a copy of GP from the summer of 1984 that has Van Halen on the cover with an accompanying article that gives an in-depth look at his style, while another article explains the whole concept of what “TAB” is and today, some 27 years later, “TAB” is THE most popular form of guitar notation. I’m not saying Van Halen was personally responsible, but he certainly re-ignited interest in the instrument and re-defined (again) what the instrument was capable of…even though, the truth is, musically, much of what is contained in Eruption, minus the legato tap-pull-off passages, and the sonic landscape powered by overdriven Marshalls, can be found in Django’s Improvisation #1. Bands like Van Halen, and other guitar-driven virtuoso bands that followed, sold huge amounts of records and played to very large audiences world-wide. Therefore the market for prospective players learning this style was also very big, which is why all of the learning tools developed as they did.

Another similarity between Eruption and Improvisation #1 is that they are improvised and there is, in my opinion, a slight misconception about what that term means. Even I was confused on this issue for a long time. Many people think improvisation means to make it up as you go along, however, that is and isn’t what is happening. Dissecting a piece like Improvisation #1 or Eruption, after playing either style of music for awhile shows that some very commonly used motifs, arpeggios, lines and technical “moves” that were/are mainstays of Django’s/EVH’s musical language are employed to create each performance. EVH has said that he used to do variations of Eruption at sound-checks before he and his band made the first Van Halen album and I believe Django played parts or variations of Improvisation #1 to and by himself before he ever recorded it. If you follow the link from the EVH pic at the top you will see a version of Eruption from 2007. Keep looking on You Tube and I’m sure you will find an endless number of versions, none of which are completely the same, but all of which have most of the same elements. EVH has said that he just “went for it” on most of the stuff the first line-up of Van Halen recorded and he was able to do that because a) the band had been playing quite a few of the songs live for years b) the band recorded their first 3 records pretty much sans guitar overdubs and c) EVH was always playing so he could just play and turn out something really good.

The same was true of Django — on the streets of Paris as a musician from the age of 11-12, and with the extra motivation that it was his only source of income save for gambling, he was playing ALL the time. Also, like EVH, who was a classically-trained pianist, classical music and his understanding and intense love of it played a huge role in his formation as a player and as a composer. Of course, the Gypsy community from whence Django came holds music as a very important, almost spiritual element and from a very early age he was astonishing the others in the community with his instrumental prowess. Not even the severe damage to the third and fourth fingers on his left hand hampered his abilities as a player, although the sheer effort necessary to come back from the injuries he sustained in the caravan fire of 1928 I believe says something of the drive and determination that was Django’s character. It is what one hears in many of his performances — this great force of nature that will not be denied!

Not only was Django a total headbanger, as the clip above illustrates, he was capable of hearing, and playing licks that none of his contemporaries could match because a) they didn’t have his unique blend of influences: jazz, gypsy and classical music, and b) his instinctive understanding of music in general. I find this also to be true of some American jazz guitarists like Charlie Christian and to a lesser extent, Wes Montgomery. While both may have surpassed Django as jazz players, neither of them ever composed or performed anything likeImprovisation #1. Many of Django’s best techniques: flamenco-style passages, diminished runs, mixing beautiful chord patterns with single string lines and very precise, powerful picking all come together to create a memorable performance. I think, that like any other guitar player, Django sat and around and played with ideas that he would then mix and match and change and do differently every time he picked up the guitar. He was just way better than most people at doing it on the spot without making a mistake. He totally nailed it the day it was recorded and considering that it was recorded at a time when you couldn’t go and “punch in” or fix a little mistake shows what a master he was at execution.

The point of all this is not to diminish Django’s or Edward’s greatness and their natural abilities to make music, but rather to humanize them. They both WORKED very hard to become incredible players, and while they both were born with immense natural abilities, there is no musician who is capable of producing that level of art without a lot of effort. Constantly being involved with the music — playing it all the time, is what helps to produce great improvisation. They both deserve the reputation they earned as people who could do things others could not, but it must never be forgotten that there was a whole lot of determination and dedication to the cause. It’s certainly true that a player could spend 10 hours a day for years practicing to play like Django and not reach a point where it would be exactly the same, or even, nearly as good. There are always particulars and intangibles that must be written off to the abilities and personality of the player. However, both Django and Edward made the best use of their natural abilities and spent many hours honing their skills and refining their talents and this is something players and non-players alike should always remember.

It’s also important for players to understand that there is no magic key for having the ability to navigate around the complex changes of a song or reach a point in one’s development when it’s conceivable that music could just fall out of whatever mood you happen to be in at the moment. Anyone who has been playing for even a short time is capable of this to a certain extent. Building on what is known little by little and incorporating as many different influences and musical possibilities during practice can lead to great performance later. And don’t forget FUN. There must be plenty of that. Both Django and EVH obviously loved/love playing guitar and that in itself can take you a long way. When I began playing Gypsy Jazz four and a half years ago my improvisation skills were pretty hopeless because most of the music I had played over the years was either prepared or based on much easier chord progressions. Though I’m still not the improviser I want to be, I can do stuff now that would have been impossible in the past. It’s much like learning a 2nd or 3rd language — you can’t just know the words, you have to be using the whole scope of the language, words, punctuation, sentence structure etc., on a regular basis.