Led Zeppelin

Happy Birthday to Me!

YEA! I made it to another birthday and it was a great one! I communicated with people I haven’t heard from in years and that was really special and maybe the best part! There is so much about the old days me from those days that I miss now, but that’s the nostalgic, wistful and longing nature of life isn’t it? Unfortunately, it’s far from a forgone conclusion that I will live to see another year when a new year begins, so the fact that I did is totally cool. All blessings to the Most Highest and them that helps me here! Also…there was SCHWAG!

The one gift I requested was for an updated version of an iPhone dock that we used to have that was made by JBL. It was pretty cool because it would charge the phone and simultaneously play music with great hi-fidelity sound, plus it just sat in the corner of the kitchen very unobtrusively. I’m very lucky in that my girlfriend is very tech-savvy and while she was home in Japan for a few weeks in October, she found the Sony xb-41! What a total party machine! This wireless speaker works with whatever device, weighs only three pounds and takes up no space at all. It has great bass response, LED light-show stuff and as all of these demonstration videos I’m linking to show: it can also charge your devices, link in a chain with other speakers to create a HUGE WALL OF SOUND, or even operate as a phone! Just think: You could set it up somewhere and yell into it and somebody, somewhere could yell back! Isn’t THAT GREAT? You can also do stupid shit use as a beat-master at the club! Who wouldn’t want to do that just once?

I just wanted something that could blast when I’m in the kitchen making dinner…which I DO ALL THE TIME! (see above). This definitely works just as expected as I’ve already tried it out and I’m happy as a musical clam. It’s a good idea to download the Sony Music Center app because the app has EVERYTHING you need to take the speaker to the next level, including a really boss equalizer, which is completely necessary. I wasn’t loving how the extra bass response was reacting with some of those jazz albums from the 50s, but the equalizer, which is not just a bunch of presets but actual levels that can be adjusted, helped make it all sound better. ROCK sounds GREAT! All of it. Led Zeppelin IV sounds friggin’ huge! It’s also possible to download an app that allows you to become a proverbial DJ, which is about as annoying a thing that anyone could ever do. I was going to record a demonstration video of this, but I got bored playing with it and decided not to. It’s pretty silly though and if you aren’t the proverbial Douche at the KLUB you’ll have no use for this app, but that doesn’t diminish all of the other great features this speaker and its attendant software will bring into your musical life. Also, you can do like we’re doing and recycle all of your old computer and sound system gear! Clear up, clean out and get rid of all of that stuff you don’t use anymore anyhow! You’ll feel better once you do…or not. I know we will and I like this high-quality machine so I definitely recommend!


I also ordered myself a present because I had another hard year, so hard that I even stopped playing guitar for six months! Can you believe that? I am callous-less. Definitely not easy playing guitar with smooth fingers, but little by little they are coming back. So I bought something I have been looking at for a couple of years: A DITTO pedal. It works just as it is supposed to and I was already playing against a loop of the Autumn Leaves changes yesterday! Fun! Fun! FUN! Making the perfect loop isn’t quite as easy as it looks especially if it’s been a few months. My timing stuff was all off too, but I finally got it. The loops can be used for overdubbing, practicing, creating…whatever you wanna do. They can be saved and then outputted if they are keepers and I will probably do that…use them as a basis for maybe some ambient stuff I can then import into Garageband or Adobe Audition for sound enhancement. If you’ve ever heard the saying, “You’re never alone with a Smith and Wesson” the same could be said for a Ditto looper; you can create the proverbial GUITAR ORCHESTRA all by yourself. I got mine online through Sweetwater and it was my first time and a great experience!. Ordering, communicating and receiving was easy as pie and THAT’S THE WAY IT SHOULD BE! Plus, unlike some other companies, they aren’t sending me hourly emails asking for a rating or a review…yet. Hopefully they won’t. But this is my review anyhow! This is a great addition to anyone’s pedal arsenal and it’s not going to break your bank either! All of what you need and nothing you don’t. Not something that’s prevalent in modern culture people…think about that!

Aside from these upgrades, I continue to enjoy the music that I reviewed last month; Moonlight in Vermont, Soft Guitars, “Howlin’ Wolf”, Led Zeppelin IV, and the “Heavy Cream” playlist I made have all been in very frequent rotation. I also made a mid 60s Rolling Stones playlist and COWS playlist that also get regular spins just for a little bit of fun and lunacy. The days continue to get shorter and shorter; by early November it’s usually a short sprint to the end of the year. I love the fall, but it always seems to fly by quickly. Enjoy it as much as possible before it’s gone!

Tidbits III

The above issue of Guitar World featuring Eric Clapton is from late ’89 and was one of the first I appeared as a writer of ROCK, so I’ve always kept it. There’s some decently cool photography with a retrospective-type interview (no, I did not conduct the interview). It’s also interesting that Tales of Brave Ulysses and Let it Rain are the songs transcribed and not one of EC’s hot 80s songs. I would imagine that the 60s-70s stuff remains the most popular guitar stuff even now.

Speaking of Let it Rain, I wrote a review for the album that it appears on; Clapton’s self-titled debut and you can read it here. This is an underrated album in my opinion and if you have never heard it, check it out if you’re a person who finds that early 70s bluesy roots sound even remotely interesting. Also, I have been on a mission to organize and update my reviews and I’ve moved all of my reviews that appeared as posts to the appropriate review sections.

Speaking of the bluesy, blues guitarist Otis Rush passed away last month at the age of 84. Otis had been unable to perform for years due to post-stroke health problems, but prior to that was (along with Buddy Guy) one of the last great bluesmen of the classic 50s era. Known as the architect of the famed Chicago West Side Blues sound, he found some success in the mid-50s and in the late 90s, when he won a Grammy for his Any Place I’m Going disc. He was an influence on many a rock guitarist and Led Zeppelin covered his song, I Can’t Quit You on their first album. His other well-known songs included Double Trouble, which inspired the name of Stevie Ray Vaughan’s band and All Your Love.

I have written about Barney Kessel and Grant Green before and reviewed Barney’s Yesterday album here and his Blues album here. I’m planning some reviews of the Grant Green discs that I have, but in the meantime, the clip above is Grant and Barney playing with the equally amazing Kenny Burrell in France in 1969. I said last year that footage of Grant Green is very rare and then… this appeared! So start referring to me as The Summoner! And watch this clip! Three great guitarists at the top of their respective game who enjoy playing with each other. Doesn’t get any better. I’ve certainly seen a ton of Barney and Kenny tearing it up, but it’s great to see Grant on these tunes, especially the ballad, I Wish You Love! I love this tune anyway, but to hear Grant’s bluesy, post bop take on it is a departure from how it is normally played. Also, on most of his records he laid out when he wasn’t soloing, but he comps a lot on this video just in case anyone thinks he couldn’t. The format for this show has all of the players on the first and last blues tunes and they each get a ballad totally to themselves. That’s interesting and not something that’s seen very often, but I like it! They have their own very signature styles and to hear a tune completely like that without someone else trying to play on it makes for a complete experience…almost like a cut from an album. Plus they can take their time to develop the ideas. Barney’s spin on I’m Glad There Is You is glorious, and Kenny Burell’s Imagination is also killin’. He is such a smooth boss with some great quick pickin’ lines. I’m grateful for this upload and hope there is more in the future! It would be amazing if there is any footage of Grant playing classic Grant tracks.

Finally, former drummer for AC/DC and Dio, Simon Wright says Ronnie James Dio’s reworked hologram looks almost real! LOL! That’s just super-duper because whatever is going on in the video above doesn’t look real at all! Even if I squint! Dio’s wife and manager Wendy recently said a bunch of creepy stuff that echoes my Pet Sematary comparisons from the last post on this subject:

“I think that Ronnie was an innovator of heavy metal music, so why not be an innovator of technology?” she said. “And I think technology is coming a long way with holograms — a lot of people are doing it now. And I think the reason is because we are losing all of our innovators; everybody is getting older. And we need to keep them alive and keep their memory and their music alive. I think it’s a new way. It’s like when people first came out with a CD or a cassette: ‘Ooh, we don’t want that.’ But then it was the way of technology.”

Riiiiight! The world is losing innovators, so hologram! Totally. That sentence had me laughing for like 10 minutes. The Dio hologram will hit the road again in 2019 and a new version of PET SEMATARY is being released next year! Coincidence? The previews look scary! Tractor Trailers! Dark woods! Weird Lord of the Flies Children! An old John Lithgow! That all sounds terrifying to me! The movie tagline: Sometimes Dead is better! Are these people reading my blog? Stay tuned!

Achilles Last Stand

Led Zeppelin will be heading back to court for more Stairway to Heaven litigation! Rumor has it paid provocateurs dressed as 70s stoners have begun massing near elevators yelling How Many More Times? at unsuspecting judges. Undeterred, a federal appeals court ruled that a 2016 trial that found in favor of Zeppelin contained inappropriate jury instructions and also erred as it didn’t allow for the “stolen” song, Taurus, to be played during the proceedings. Michael Skidmore, who represents the estate of Taurus writer Randy California, is goin’ all YOUR TIME IS GONNA COME!:

“Skidmore argued that not playing the original Spirit recording worked in Zeppelin’s favour. He said that the jury should have been able to monitor Page’s demeanour while listening to the song that he allegedly ‘stole.'”

Attorney Francis Malofiy will once again be representing Skidmore and the estate and he’s a guy who doesn’t know the meaning of limits! He had his license suspended because of his courtroom antics during a previous trial involving Usher! He incurred more than a hundred sustained objections and multiple GTFOs from Judge R. Gary Klausner in the first Led Zeppelin trial! Who knows what he has up his sleeve this time? Guys who like loud, red ties are unpredictable!

Led Zeppelin has the obvious advantage in this fight. They’re wealthy, they have an army of high-powered lawyers, they have their stellar musical reputation and they have a legion of dedicated fans who are ready to go to war to support their favorite band. But how much will all of that help them in another trial is hard to call. They won’t enjoy some of the advantages that won the case for them the first time around. As we all know, with the legal landscape mood of the United States where it is now, anything is possible!

The Guitar Cave is trying to maintain neutrality because I totally believe in the jury trial system. As a matter of fact I’ve been in the jury system a few times myself. A few years ago I was juror #7 in a criminal trial and found the experience to be deeply moving, interesting, and engaging. I felt like a REAL AMERICAN when it was over! Naturally, in order to successfully mediate a disagreement between two parties in a civil trial, it is necessary to be completely unbiased and have as much information as possible. It would be easy for me to say, “I’ve been listening to Led Zeppelin since the 70s and they have given me many moments of rocking great pleasure, so screw all of these people trying to get money or credit out of the band.” But I’m not gonna do that because that would be presumptuous and not respectful of our judicial system. And…as you will see, this is shaping up to be a GREAT STORY! and who doesn’t love one of those?

There is much at stake: a 2008 deal between Plant, Page and Warner/Chappell Music gives the songwriters $60 million over 10 years for the company’s right to use “Stairway” and other songs from the band’s catalog. All of that cash and the legacy of one of the most famous rock songs of all time is nothing to sneeze at obviously. Prior to the first trial I had already mused on some possible outcomes and I was actually pretty close…not that the case was that hard to call. At least that is what I thought then. Some wildcards have entered the picture y’all! I said at the time, (2014) I thought the idea that the A-minor intro that is the basis for Stairway to Heaven/Taurus was not unique in music history because I was pretty sure something close had to have existed previously. I cited the great 18th century classical guitarist Fernando Sor as an off-the-cuff example. That was basically Led Zeppelin’s claim as well and without having to supply an accurate exact copy of that guitar part, the jury gave them the victory. But Malofiy successfully argued these issues with the first trial and that is why he is getting another crack! A new and better trial! So I think we need to take a look at this guy because that’s a pretty impressive thing he just did. I did some internet sleuthing and a picture emerges of the archetypal “scrappy underdog”. Consider that Malofiy

What a pair of balls! This is a guy who’ll do anything! He filed for trial setting in Philadelphia because Zeppelin played the Live Aid concert in 1985! LOL! He’s a musician who played gigs and got in a fight and KAPOWED! the other party and took the stand in his own defense to stay out of prison. And won! He used the Zeppelin font on his petition for a new trial! LOL! You can see it here. I think, given what we have learned from this very basic research, we can ascertain that Malofiy is a rock and roll, 2000s version of this guy:

WeWe wewe WeweWeweWewewewe (That’s the first couple bars of the Rockford Files Theme. Anyhow…Dude…I am sold. Seriously! This is gonna be a battle for the ages! Remember when Rockford would, like, print up a business card in his car and then go into some office and lie through his teeth about everything and then get in a fight, kick somebody’s ass and the go downtown and yell at Sgt. Becker? That’s totally what this guy does too, except when he prints out business cards he uses this font and they look like album covers. This case will pit newRockford against Jimmy Page, a guy who has been a bonafide wizard since the 1970s, or maybe even the 1400s! I. Don’t. Know. I’m literally shaking with excitement right now. Jimmy might turn newRockford and all of his friends into newts! Or maybe they have anti-newt repellent. They’d better get it if they don’t, I’m just sayin’! Hopefully, newRockford has a cast of friends besides lowrider-driving guy, you know, maybe some neo-pagan witches, or an Angel Martin or Beth Davenport type who owns or works at one of those stores where you can buy crystals and other paraphernalia to keep bad spells and hexes and junk at bay. He better wear garlic necklaces every day of the trial ’cause Zeppelin won’t be screwing around this time! Stairway to Heaven was voted the most popular song on the radio for 30 years running or something. I’m sure it has imbued Jimmy and the rest of Led Zeppelin with all kind of cosmic power, not to mention millions and millions of dollars, which, of course can also make one cosmically powerful.

As I related, I have some legal background myself and I watched Malofiy argue for the appeal in this video. You can watch or you can read this article in Techdirt that covers pretty much the same ground. There some issues at stake for the copyright folks and that topic comprises about the first 15 minutes of the video. A ruling from the early 1900s prevented the actual recording of Taurus from being played in the courtroom to the first jury. From what I think I understand, some musicians interpreted the sheet music and played what was there because it was the sheet music, not the recorded performance, that had the copyright. Malofiy, legal scholar that he is, convinced the appeal judges to let both recordings be played at this new trial in a comparison test, and for me, Jimmy Page’s reaction isn’t what is important. I thought that this comparison of both performances had already happened when the first jury had found in favor of Zeppelin.

The second step and I think I understand this also…I think I do. I’ve read; I’ve digested; I’ve mulled this over for a day or two now. Any musical piece will be made up of elements that “are” and “aren’t” covered by a copyright. The melody of a song is, the chord progression (usually) is not. There could be items like clusters of 3-4 notes that may or may not be, depending on how important or how original they are to the piece of music. Malofiy claims in his rebuttal argument that:

“…we were able to show 5 distinct elements: minor chromatic line and associated chords, duration of pitches in minor chromatic line, melody placed over descending chromatic line, rhythm of steady eight-note beats and a pitch collection. These 5 very distinct elements were never used in any prior art and defendants were not able to show that in any way, shape or form that these 5 elements…

I can’t exactly make out what he is saying at the end because he is rushing as he runs out of time, but if this whole thing about the five elements is true, then I WAS WRONG! About the Fernando Sor thing…but if it was checked obviously and if these 5 elements can be argued to be covered by copyright. That first element — the line with the chords thing? I’m not sure that everyone agrees something like that is necessarily covered by copyright, but this is part of the brilliant Malofiy strategy! Ironside would totally be jealous! He will first try to get people who know absolutely nothing about music on the jury, play both songs, and point to these 5 elements that people can “hear” in both songs. He will claim they are covered by copyright and if Zeppelin can’t counter with something that also has these 5 elements, or argue successfully that they shouldn’t be covered in copyright, Malofiy and the Estate will emerge victorious! Or…prior to a trial, Led Zeppelin will behold the awesomeness of this strategy, quietly settle out of court and give Randy California a writing credit. Or…I’m completely wrong about the whole “Rockford” angle and Malofiy is actually…New Vinnie! WHOA! Can you imagine? With a hot babe girlfriend who knows everything there is to know about pitch clusters and line clichés? If I was the Led Zeppelin legal team I would look through that Fernando Sor catalog…and watch My Cousin Vinnie a few times. If Malofiy shows up in a red tux, it’s all ova, you guys!

So this is shaping up to be a Battle of Evermore! I’m on the edge of my seat! I wish they would they televise it. Both parties think they’ll win! *Developing*

The Wolf at the Door

Ater 25 years in the same apartment, I moved on to new digs this year. It was time and all of the post-move changes seem to have worked out, and I am very thankful for that. I was lucky in that I didn’t have to move too far and it wasn’t a tedious or complicated process, but, somehow, somewhere, I lost a Howlin’ Wolf compilation that I had and I don’t have it digitally. Bummer! I have no Howlin’ Wolf on my person at the moment. I am Wolf-less. I haven’t been Wolf-less in years and the stuff I see on the iTunes store doesn’t look that great. It is incomplete. This is not a good thing.

Way, way back in 2011 (WOW!) I wrote this paragraph in a post on the illustrious Booker ‘Bukka’ White:

“I’ve always been a fan of the blues and I mean the real razor in the shoe-down home neon blues, not most of the stuff that passes for blues these days. My all-time favorite acoustic blues player is Booker “Bukka” White. He was a giant of a man; son of a railroad worker, boxer, baseball player, prisoner, blues genius. He was a giant and I mean a real giant not only as a musician, but also as man, a sonic philosopher and bona-fide American Shaman of the twentieth century. And…he was BB King’s cousin and helped teach the young BB how to play!! He emerged from a society that was marginalized not only by the majority white segment of the population, but also from some within his own community. Many proper church-going folks did not listen to the blues, especially the gritty, greasy, down-home flavored blues thrown down by Booker. He sang and played profane songs full of temptation and need, murder and greed, prison and trains, desperation, isolation, loneliness, and the danger and excitement of being full of White Lightning and in the wrong house at the wrong time. He was a man on the outside and a man on the move from an early age, living the life that became his music.”

That’s a pretty happening paragraph. Damn! I’m good. The same feelings I have for Bukka and his acoustic blues music, I have always had for Chester Burnett (Howlin’ Wolf) and his gnarly, snarly, electric blues. Yea, Muddy Waters, Magic Sam, T-Bone Walker, Sonny Boy Williamson and all of the rest were great. No doubt. Willie Dixon, of course, was the premiere songwriter of them all. He was also an awesome bass player and over the years played with pretty much everybody. But Wolf’s brand of blues and his awesome presence, live or on record, cannot be beat. He towers over other performers by a mile and this is why he was also a huge influence and a big favorite of people like Bonnie Raitt, Led Zeppelin, Cream, and Brian Jones and his little band from Britain, The Rolling Stones.

Wolf was a big dude — 6 foot 3, 300 lbs. and his brand of blues was dangerous and menacing…’cause even when he was sitting down wearing accountant glasses he still looked menacing. Like Bukka White he sang about the very dangerous things he knew about: evil, riding trains, liquor, fights, women, more fighting, life, and more women. His best songs, whether original or not, are my favorite versions of those songs: Smokestack Lightning, Sittin’ On Top of the World, Evil, Moanin’ at Midnight, Wang Dang Doodle, Killing Floor, Down in the Bottom, Back Door Man, Spoonful, The Red Rooster, How Many More Years, and I Asked For Water (She Gave Me Gasoline). All of these tunes featured Wolf’s booming, bassy, bad-ass testifying shouts, whoops, snarls and, yelps front and center, while his guitar, slide guitar and harmonica punched, jabbed, accented and punctuated his backing band’s steady rolling rhythm. This produced a beautiful and sometimes terrifying musical atmosphere as Wolf’s. It was, as legendary producer Sam Phillips recalled, “This is where the soul of man never dies.” His voice was as big as the country; too big to be contained by music hall, bar or the radio. Often imitated, but never equaled, it was an unparalleled instrument gave all of his material an instantly recognizable brand and edge. This version of Smokestack Lightning is a bit different from the recorded version but it illustrates the Howlin’ Wolf’s blues train: the swingin’ kit hits, guitar screams and stabs, piano tinkles, and bass rumble working together simultaneously while Wolf rides the top of the boxcar shouting, moaning and lowing his orgy dream tale of train-riding and woman-loving. [LateEdit: I love the recorded version of this song. It has all of the elements of this live version but is driven by Hubert’s hypnotically repetitive Chicago-by-way-of-the-Delta guitar riff. Definitely serves up the essence of the Howlin’ Wolf sound!]

While Wolf had the showbiz image of the dangerous, fly-by-night, criminal badass, he was actually a very conservative, hard-working and responsible bandleader. Financially he always did well; so well he was able to pay his band better than anyone else and even provided health insurance, which is why he had the best band in the business and players, like guitarist Hubert Sumlin, stuck around for the duration of Wolf’s life and career. It was all about the music, which Wolf gave forty years of his life to before succumbing to various health ailments in 1976. Prior to that he was able to capitalize on the blues revival in the United States and Europe in the 1960s and he taught all of youngsters what roadhouse blues was really all about.

Hubert Sumlin was also a huge part of the Howlin’ Wolf sound and a lot of his licks show up later in stuff like Zeppelin’s The Lemon Song and various Cream covers that everyone has heard a million times. He was the perfect foil for Wolf’s voice, guitar and harmonica sound. Whether the band was on big stages or in small, intimate situations, they always turned it out in great rockin’ rhythm and blues style!

So what am I gonna do? I have to find the complete sides collection somewhere, but no one buys CDs anymore do they? I don’t do the streaming, so I guess I’ll have to go to a store. Holy Cow! I’ll have to work up to this…I’ll let you know how it turns out.

Summer’s Almost Gone

a languid and lazy atmosphere pervades my world now…perfectly and sublimely captured and described by the lazy blues, world-weary vocals and Eastern European pop sensibilities The Doors bring to this song off of their Waiting For the Sun LP. Hard to believe that the 50th Anniversary Edition of the album will be available this year. That would make Jim Morrison almost 80 if he were alive today. Shocking Man! At some point in the very near future this album will figure in a series of posts on journalism, rock writing, Rolling Stone Magazine Conspiracies, Alex Jones and that weird celebrity black eye thing…or is it the one eye thing? Pretty scary! Remember the good old, innocent days? When rock stars just put subliminal messages (so you thought) in their music and then people played the discs backwards and heard things like Ringo is face-down in indian food pronto after the Mandrax boy! and Don’t Kill Yourself Buy More of Our Records!. Bill Hicks kind of demolished the logical thinking behind why rockers would put messages that would be harmful to their (record buying) audience. That didn’t and hasn’t dissuaded people from making and remaking the claim! Supposedly, Stairway to Heaven reversed, as proved by a televangelist in 1982 said:

…which really makes no sense. Toolshed? Why would Satan be sad? What does it mean to “get the 666”? I never heard that one and I did a lot of bong hits! Robert Plant was quoted as saying a guy would “have to have a lot of time on his hands” to even consider doing something like this. But maybe not if he’s flat-out just making stuff up that doesn’t have to really make sense. Personally, I couldn’t ever do any of this fun shit even when I was rilly, rilly stoned, ’cause all I ever had was the Kenner Close N’Play…’cause it played when you closed and…

In the meantime: Thanks G-d for MUSIC! (as they say). I’m not a very religious person and I don’t even consider myself “spiritual”…or astrological. All I know is that there were something like 6 planets in my chart retrograde this month so trying to do anything was not…encouraged. Rather, I was supposed to take a reflective stance and try to review where I’ve been…and where I’m going…and where am I now? I’m not sure I figured anything out. But that attitude really suits the time of year, the weather and the anticipation of soon changing seasons. Autumn has always been my favorite time of the year and so I’m looking forward to it, as usual. One thing I did this month…to quote a very trippy and lo-fi Spine of God Monster Magnet song from 1992…

Bought another copy of ZOSO

I’ve lost count how many copies of Zoso I’ve had over the years, but if there is one album that you should always have on hand, it’s this one. Sorry Cardi B…maybe next time…or not. Is there really anything better than Led Zeppelin IV? I’m sure many people could list several things that are, but me, I’ve been in love with the album since high school. Yea, ok…I don’t need to hear Stairway to Heaven anymore, but I will never tire of listening to The Battle of Evermore, Misty Mountain Hop, Four Sticks, Going to California, and When the Levee Breaks…’cause John Henry Bohnam. That Jimmy Page guy was a pretty good guitarist and a heckuva producer too. Robert Plant and John Paul Jones were jeez…I think they still get work from time to time because they were pretty talented too. All I know is that it was good to hear this disc again…it was like…coming home to my past, while hearing strains of an unknown future as I meditated on the plane of all that will ever be. Wow! Reiki! That was pretty good… Maybe I AM spiritual.

I was also in the mood to swing, so I was looking around and I found this very mysterious album by one of my favorite jazz guitar players, the incomparable Barney Kessel. I wrote about Barney here and here and he is actually one of the more popular search terms to get to this blog. It’s great to know that there are a lot of Barney fans out there because he was one of the greatest guitar pickers that ever was. This album, Blues Guitar, is an odd one, for sure. Not one of the more well-known Barney offerings, it also has an interesting selection of songs: How High the Moon, Willow Weep for Me, Honeysuckle Rose, Out of Nowhere, Blue Moon, Limehouse Blues, and It Don’t Mean a Thing(If it Ain’t Got Swing) are all great swing standards and they feature the great Stephane Grappelli. Who knew these guys recorded together? Not me that’s for sure. Of course if you’re a Django Reinhardt fan like I am, you know Grappelli after about 3 notes and he brings his usual je ne sais quoi to the sessions. Barney is on fire as usual with this fleet-fingered chord melody and snaky, inventive single string lines. When he and Stephane trade-off on many choruses there are some totally frenetic and kinetic fireworks to be heard. Rockin’!! I mean Swingin’!! I also like the texture songs, Aquarius and Burt Bacharach‘s The Look of Love. What is very interesting is that a very small part of Barney’s guitar from this tune was sampled for a hip-hop track, The Look of Love, by Slum Village. Because of the exposure this group gave the song, Barney’s version is a thing with young guitar players who have learned the sample. Pretty cool if you ask me and good lookin’ out on Slum Village for sampling a class act and great guitarist!

Finally, I picked up the alternative guitar classic from 1984, Aerial Boundaries, featuring the absolutely mind-boggling Michael Hedges. How mind-boggling was Michael Hedges? Er…maybe Davey Graham, Pierre Bensusan, Edward Van Halen, and Leo Kottke all rolled into one, with a dash of Allan Holdsworth. I had this on LP back in the day and a club we used to play jazz at featured this between sets regularly…’cause it just has that sound: lovely textures, outside the box guitar tunings, percussive slap and hammer-on fingerpicking and strumming. This album was very influential for its time and what Hedges crafted as a style and way of approaching the guitar that still influences people today. Have a little watch and listen below to the title track. The whole album has a deep guitar ambience that I love and it perfectly completes my amazing guitar music purchase trifecta for the month. Enjoy what’s left of the summer!

The Impressionists — Part 2

Maurice Ravel, Erik Satie, Enrique Granados and Isaac Albéniz

part 1 introduced the Impressionists and delved into the history and musical ideas of Claude Debussy, not only as he employed them in some of his most celebrated pieces, but also how these same ideas were picked up and used by other composers, most notably Django Reinhardt and others from the Gypsy Jazz genre of guitar music. In Part 2, I would like to briefly explore the music of four other composers from this era and why their music appeals to me.

Erik Satie was a very eccentric character who was a very good friend and influence on Debussy. Even though in Part 1 one of the film clips features Leonard Bernstein giving credit to Debussy for “inventing” the Whole Tone Scale, it is also said that Satie “wrote music in the whole-tone scale before Debussy ever thought of doing so”. I was introduced to Satie a very long time ago courtesy of the very famous 2nd album, by Blood, Sweat & Tears, released in 1968. The album included Variations on a Theme By Erik Satie, which was based on Satie’s First and Second Gymnopédies; very melancholy piano pieces that used “mild dissonances against the harmonic”. However, the intro, with it’s very deliberate two major seventh chords was MADE for guitar arrangement and this is why it has always been a memorable piece for me. The melody is innocently lilting, but also seems very sad and resigned at the same time. It is very fun to do a full on guitar version of this and it is aptly demonstrated here and here. Another quality of this piece and Satie in general is there is a very soothing quality to his dreamy music. Satie was admired by guitarist/composer Frank Zappa and heavily influenced The New School of composers that included John Cage. Here’s a list of how different he was as a person…(he only ate white food). Interestingly enough, Satie himself was a humorist and didn’t take his music or music in general very seriously so it’s possible he heard all that he composed much differently than I do. There’s a chance he was being ironic! My god…could it be? The World’s First Hipster? Don’t laugh…I’m telling you, these men were influential.

Enrique Granados and Isaac Albéniz, two Spanish composers who were likewise contemporaries of Debussy, but also would probably not be considered Impressionists. Granados’ 12 Danzas (#11 is played by Evangelos and Liza above) were very popular in his time and he also wrote seven operas. Before he died in 1916 his most famous works, The Goyescas were influenced by works from Francisco de Goya. Albéniz was also a pianist and he composed the famous Iberia, a collection of virtuoso piano pieces. Both of these men were deemed Nationalist because their music was heavily influenced by, and meant to sound like Spain. This is why their music translates so well to guitar and sounds even more authentic on the guitar in some cases (at least to my ears) than it does on piano. Enrique Granados especially, produced very strident, masculine music, full passion, melody and virtuosity. I was exposed to both thanks to Julian Bream and John Williams adaptations on the Together and Together Again discs and they have covered these pieces on the YouTube. It’s possible that, at least according to Bream and Williams, Granados and Albéniz were Impressionists because Bream is quoted as saying:

“It is, however, his earlier pieces and in particular the Suite Española Opus 47 which initially brought Albéniz such fame and success in his lifetime. This Suite was published 1886. It consists of four highly impressionistic tone poems. The evocation of Granada -surely one of his most Idyllic pieces, the exhilarating portrait of Sevilla and the gay and bustling Saeta Cadiz.” (J. Bream 1982)

Sevilla is also the name of an absolutely bangin’ composition by The Rosenberg Trio and, of course, they are masters at playing exotic guitar-driven music. This performance is from the North Sea Jazz Festival and they are joined by outstanding percussionist Eddie Conard. Stochelo’s influences run far and wide, so I would not be surprised if he was/is influenced by Granados, Albéniz, Bream, Williams or any combination of the 4! Stochelo has also performed a few “tone-poems” of his own over the years and was probably inspired to do this through the music of Impressionist, classical, and flamenco guitar players as well as his main influence, Django Reinhardt. Here he is playing Just Relax; my first exposure to his composing genius and amazing guitar abilities. There are many Impressionist ideas used in this piece and the middle has a bit of Satie with the virtuoso underpinnings of Reinhardt.

The last composer of the group, Maurice Ravel, though younger than Debussy by 12 years, was often associated with him and Impressionism. Unfortunately, by the early 1900s factions would form around the two composers that would exacerbate the tension and sometime rivalry that existed between the two men, so their friendship, that had never been close to begin with, fractured. Ravel was not nearly the musical revolutionary that Debussy was, and was:

“…content to work within the established formal and harmonic conventions of his day, still firmly rooted in tonality—i.e., the organization of music around focal tones. Yet, so very personal and individual was his adaptation and manipulation of the traditional musical idiom that it would be true to say he forged for himself a language of his own that bears the stamp of his personality as unmistakably as any work of Bach or Chopin. While his melodies are almost always modal (i.e., based not on the conventional Western diatonic scale but on the old Greek Phrygian and Dorian modes), his harmonies derive their often somewhat acid flavour from his fondness for “added” notes and unresolved appoggiaturas, or notes extraneous to the chord that are allowed to remain harmonically unresolved. “

Ravel was a painstaking composer therefore his output was much less than many of his contemporaries and some works like Gaspard de la nuit, a suite of piano pieces, were very technically challenging pieces to play. Ravel was the only composer out of this group who lived late enough into the 20th century to experience, recognize and participate in recording music. I used to have this biography on the composer and two of the topics that are of special interest to modern guitar players is (as with Debussy) the use of the Pentatonic Scale and (for especially Ravel) the use of Modes (as related above). The book went into some detail and I actually applied it to my own playing when I started to use Modes. (Maybe this isn’t correct, but Satie always sounds very Lydian to me). Another view that pretty much restates what was originally outlined in my post on Debussy, courtesy of this website:

“After hearing the simple but powerful spells cast by the pentatonic scale (at theL’Esposition Universelle in Paris in 1889), Debussy and Ravel tried using them to “paint” gentle scenes of water, clouds, and fog, thus ridding themselves of the old fashioned rules and structures…

“The improvised quality of these Impressionist pieces must have seemed like a pretty radical idea back them because most European ears had been accustomed to hearing music as a series of predictable events, much like what you experience today in a movie or television show. By 1900, the French Impressionist composers had gotten rid of distinct musical narratives and were using the newly “discovered” pentatonic scales to portray hazy and ill-defined without much traditional melody or even a sense of beat. They were creating trance pieces that relied on the timbres (sound color) of various instruments to canvey mood rather than melodies. Typical titles were, Nuages (Clouds) by Debussy and Jeux d’Eau (The Play of Water) by Ravel.”

– From The Wisdom of the Hand: A Guide to the Jazz Pentatonic Scales by Marius Nordal, (Sher Music, 2015)”

Ravel’s most famous composition was Bolero, which was originally supposed to be an orchestration of Albeniz’s Iberia (mentioned above). Ravel instead decided to compose something completely original and hit upon the idea of having a single theme and a relentless rhythmic build-up for the entire 16-minute piece. Scandal and Success ensued! Success because it was his most popular and maybe influential work; scandal because it was his least favorite because he didn’t consider the work up to his usual standard.

Django Reinhardt was probably the first guitarist and certainly the most well-known musician of his time to begin applying the styles of modern classical music and Impressionism to his own very (non) classical music style. While Django was certainly a fan of many types of music and artists ranging from Bach to Louis Armstrong, he was quoted early in his career:

“Jazz attracted me because in it I found a formal perfection and instrumental precision that I admire in classical music, but which popular music doesn’t have.”

In 1937 Django recorded his own Bolero based on Ravel’s Bolero from 1928. Django’s recording did not feature his usual “Hot Club” partners, including Stephane Grappelli. It was performed (and arranged) by Django with three trumpets, two trombones, a flute and three violins. His performance simultaneously calls to mind Ravel’s piece and anticipates a future Jeff Beck. The driving rhythmic build-up and the sad melody seem to echo Ravel but then there are sudden stops with bursts of Phrygian lines played by violins and then Django’s guitar. Django’s Bolero was received with great acclaim and it was here that he became much more than just a jazz player. This is the point those who want to argue Charlie Christian vs. Django Reinhardt always miss. Charlie for all his talent never reached this level of composition or recognition for his ability to do so. Not only was this the first step in Django’s emerging career as a serious composer, but it was also probably his first step forward influencing the future guitarists of the 60s and beyond.

The music of the 1960s was Rock coming into it’s own as an accepted artistic movement, sort of akin to what happened with jazz music in the 1930s and what happened as Modern/Impressionist composers were accepted in the late 19th/early 20th century. By 1965-66 The Beatles had allowed Baroque and Impressionist overtones to become a part of their music with songs like Michelle, Yesterday, Girl, and For No One. The influence of Eastern music, especially the Indian raga music of Ravi Shankar and others expanded the sounds of Psychedelia as did the advances in technology that allowed for distortion, wah-wah pedals and other tone benders to be employed to reshape the sound…And then there was the direct nod from guitarist Jeff Beck, who continued the tradition begun by Ravel and carried on by Reinhardt, by recording his own…Beck’s Bolero in 1966. But was it Beck? Was it Jimmy Page? Was it the first Led Zeppelin song? The controversy will continue forever:

“In a 1977 interview with Guitar Player magazine, Jimmy Page said: “On the ‘Beck’s Bolero’ thing I was working with that, the track was done, and then the producer just disappeared. He was never seen again; he simply didn’t come back. Napier-Bell, he just sort of left me and Jeff to it. Jeff was playing and I was in the box (recording booth). And even though he says he wrote it, I wrote it. I’m playing the electric 12-string on it. Beck’s doing the slide bits, and I’m basically playing around the chords. The idea was built around (classical composer) Maurice Ravel’s ‘Bolero.’ It’s got a lot of drama to it; it came off right. It was a good lineup too, with Keith Moon, and everything.”

Beck’s Bolero is a classic composition from the 60s and Beck still plays it all of the time. Jimmy Page performed his own ‘bolero’ on Led Zeppelin’s first album, with the pastiché song, How Many More Times. This song is also one of three tunes from the first album to feature Page’s violin-bowed guitar. Here is an exhaustive exploration on every possible bit and piece contained within the song (including the bolero) and there are many. How many people have rocked out to this tune over the years never knowing it can be traced back to a mild-manner French composer from the early 1900s? (The band launches into the ‘bolero’ at about the 7:00 minute mark in this performance at Royal Albert Hall in 1970)

So this snapshot of almost 100 years of music is pretty interesting and it illustrates how Impressionist composers and their peers from the late 1800s and early 1900s served two vital functions. First, they “bridged” the earlier (romantic) eras of Classical music with the what would become Modern Classical music. They lived and composed during a very transitional time, when the very atmosphere was pregnant with possibility. This is certainly audible in all of their musical creations, which feature unpredictable movement, spontaneous progressions, outrageous dissonance and, at times, uncertain harmony. Likewise, the jazz greats of the 30s and 40s forged a musical bond between the classical and the popular and brought their art from the salons to the nightclubs. This was also a time of great change and upheaval; musical, as well as social and political. The 1960s were also a time of great upheaval, but also an era of great expansion and advancement in music and art. The musicians and technicians of that decade forged new paths and developed new ways of creating and playing music that served as a model for decades. Even today, though hard to find sometimes, there are still musicians rewriting the rules of yesterday and breaking new barriers to create new sounds. More than 100 years later, Impressionism still serves as an example and an inspiration to change, dynamism and inventiveness.